Brain Byte


  • Published12 Oct 2020
  • Author Calli McMurray
  • Source BrainFacts/SfN

Boasting the largest neurons in the animal kingdom, sea slugs reveal important clues about the neural basis of learning and memory.

Brain Bytes showcase essential facts about neuroscience.

Anaspidea  brain byte
Design by A.Tong

Design by Adrienne Tong.

Image "Brown sea hare" by Gerald Robert Fischer/Shutterstock.



Moroz, L. L. (2011). Aplysia. Current Biology: CB, 21(2), R60–R61. PubMed (21256433). doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.11.028

McNamee, E., & Wilson, J. (2013, May 14). A Nobel Prize with help from sea slugs. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from

Foundation, L. (2020, March 10). Eric Kandel: Learning about the human brain from sea slugs. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from

Lodish, H., Zipursky, SL., et al. (2000). Section 21.7 Learning and Memory. In Molecular Cell Biology 4th edition. New York: W H Freeman. Available from:

Rajkowska, G., Selemon, L. D., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1998). Neuronal and Glial Somal Size in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Postmortem Morphometric Study of Schizophrenia and Huntington Disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(3), 215–224. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.55.3.215

BrainFacts Book

Download a copy of the newest edition of the book, Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.


Animals in Research

Advancing science, improving health. 

Learn More

Ask An Expert

Ask a neuroscientist your questions about the brain.

Submit a Question